William Morris Archive


The street was pretty full of men by then we were out in it, and all faces turned toward the cross. The song still grew nearer and louder, and even as we looked we saw it turning the corner through the hedges of the orchards and closes, a good clump of men, more armed, as it would seem, than our villagers, as the low sun flashed back from many points of bright iron and steel. The words of the song could now be heard, and amidst them I could pick out Will Green’s late challenge to me and my answer; but as I was bending all my mind to disentangle more words from the music, suddenly from the new white tower behind us clashed out the church bells, harsh and hurried at first, but presently falling into measured chime; and at the first sound of them a great shout went up from us and was echoed by the new–comers, “John Ball hath rung our bell!” Then we pressed on, and presently we were all mingled together at the cross.

Will Green had good–naturedly thrust and pulled me forward, so that I found myself standing on the lowest step of the cross, his seventy–two inches of man on one side of me. He chuckled while I panted, and said:

“There’s for thee a good hearing and seeing stead, old lad. Thou art tall across thy belly and not otherwise, and thy wind, belike, is none of the best, and but for me thou wouldst have been amidst the thickest of the throng, and have heard words muffled by Kentish bellies and seen little but swinky woollen elbows and greasy plates and jacks. Look no more on the ground, as though thou sawest a hare, but let thine eyes and thine ears be busy to gather tidings to bear back to Essex—or heaven!”

I grinned good–fellowship at him but said nothing, for in truth my eyes and ears were as busy as he would have them to be. A buzz of general talk went up from the throng amidst the regular cadence of the bells, which now seemed far away and as it were that they were not swayed by hands, but were living creatures making that noise of their own wills.

I looked around and saw that the newcomers mingled with us must have been a regular armed band; all had bucklers slung at their backs, few lacked a sword at the side. Some had bows, some “staves”—that is, bills, pole–axes, or pikes. Moreover, unlike our villagers, they had defensive arms. Most had steel–caps on their heads, and some had body armour, generally a “jack,” or coat into which pieces of iron or horn were quilted; some had also steel or steel–and–leather arm or thigh pieces. There were a few mounted men among them, their horses being big–boned hammer–headed beasts, that looked as if they had been taken from plough or waggon, but their riders were well armed with steel armour on their heads, legs, and arms. Amongst the horsemen I noted the man that had ridden past me when I first awoke; but he seemed to be a prisoner, as he had a woollen hood on his head instead of his helmet, and carried neither bill, sword, nor dagger. He seemed by no means ill–at–ease, however, but was laughing and talking with the men who stood near him.

Above the heads of the crowd, and now slowly working towards the cross, was a banner on a high–raised cross–pole, a picture of a man and woman half–clad in skins of beasts seen against a background of green trees, the man holding a spade and the woman a distaff and spindle rudely done enough, but yet with a certain spirit and much meaning; and underneath this symbol of the early world and man’s first contest with nature were the written words:

When Adam delved and Eve span
Who was then the gentleman?

The banner came on and through the crowd, which at last opened where we stood for its passage, and the banner–bearer turned and faced the throng and stood on the first step of the cross beside me.

A man followed him, clad in a long dark–brown gown of coarse woollen, girt with a cord, to which hung a “pair of beads” (or rosary, as we should call it to–day) and a book in a bag. The man was tall and big–boned, a ring of dark hair surrounded his priest’s tonsure; his nose was big but clear cut and with wide nostrils; his shaven face showed a longish upper lip and a big but blunt chin; his mouth was big and the lips closed firmly; a face not very noteworthy but for his grey eyes well opened and wide apart, at whiles lighting up his whole face with a kindly smile, at whiles set and stern, at whiles resting in that look as if they were gazing at something a long way off, which is the wont of the eyes of the poet or enthusiast.

He went slowly up the steps of the cross and stood at the top with one hand laid on the shaft, and shout upon shout broke forth from the throng. When the shouting died away into a silence of the human voices, the bells were still quietly chiming with that far–away voice of theirs, and the long–winged dusky swifts, by no means scared by the concourse, swung round about the cross with their wild squeals; and the man stood still for a little, eyeing the throng, or rather looking first at one and then another man in it, as though he were trying to think what such an one was thinking of, or what he were fit for. Sometimes he caught the eye of one or other, and then that kindly smile spread over his face, but faded off it into the sternness and sadness of a man who has heavy and great thoughts hanging about him. But when John Ball first mounted the steps of the cross a lad at some one’s bidding had run off to stop the ringers, and so presently the voice of the bells fell dead, leaving on men’s minds that sense of blankness or even disappointment which is always caused by the sudden stopping of a sound one has got used to and found pleasant. But a great expectation had fallen by now on all that throng, and no word was spoken even in a whisper, and all men’s hearts and eyes were fixed upon the dark figure standing straight up now by the tall white shaft of the cross, his hands stretched out before him, one palm laid upon the other.

And for me, as I made ready to hearken, I felt a joy in my soul that I had never yet felt.

Continue to Chapter 4
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Notes on Chapter 3 by Peter Wright

p. 209 para. 1 John Ball hath rung our bell

See Dobson, Peasants’ Revolt, p. 382, last letter from John Ball, and [[Historical Introduction, IV. Medieval and Later Sources, esp. paragraph 3]]

** p. 209 paragraph 3 Swinky Sweaty from toil on the ground .... a hare

Cf. Chaucer, Canterbury Tales, Prologue to Sir Thopas, stanza I (the Host to Chaucer) Para. 3 Plates Apparently in the 14th century, before full plate armour was widely in use, sheets and pieces of metal, flat or curved, worn over chain mail to protect vulnerable points were described as 'plates'; a 'pair of plates' was equivalent to a cuirass.

p. 210 para. 2 a banner

The shape of this banner suggests the ornamental ones used by 19th-century trade unions at processions and demonstrations rather than the square ones shown in battle by medieval commanders. [[see below, p. 221 paragraph 5 on pennons]]. The medieval church may have used in processions such banners on cross­poles with saints' images, etc., probably frontal, painted on canvas, unlike the embroidered ones borne by modern High Churchmen on such occasions.

Morris may have had in mind in his description of this banner, rather than the portrayal of Adam and Eve in action, digging and spinning, as shown in the frontispiece for the book edition drawn by Burne­Jones, a pair of their figures side by side, facing forward, such as were produced by Burne-Jones for individual figures of saints and patriarchs for church windows. Burne-Janes drew such a figure of Adam, roughly clad and leaning on his spade, in the mid 1870s: see A. C. Sewter, Stained Glass of William Morris and His Circle (1974), illus. 428, 539. His only such single figure of Eve, in a hairy robe and spinning, was done for Middleton Cheney in 1865, though there she is seen sideways. (Sewter, illus. 238) When Adam delved .... Historians now consider that this rhyme to be a traditional one, merely adopted by the peasants as their motto. See [[Historical Introduction, IV. Medieval and Later Sources, paragraph 4]]


The beads used to count the number of prayers repeated when someone, often a layman, was saying to the Virgin Mary a vowed number of prayers, including the Lord's Prayer and the Ave Maria; the beads were arranged in fifteen groups of ten.

** p. 212 para. 2 Cain

Cf. Genesis chap. 4.